A man holding his arm up, with his elbow covered in red shades to highlight a pain point.

Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis Relief

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage. This condition commonly affects the knees, hips, hands and spine, leading to pain, stiffness and decreased mobility. While there is no cure, there are multiple options for OA relief. Below you can learn about different treatment options, including medications, surgical options and advanced therapy to manage symptoms.

Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis

While there is no cure for osteoarthritis, various treatments can help manage symptoms and improve joint function. Treatment plans are typically tailored to the individual's needs and may include a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, physical therapy, and surgical options.

Lifestyle Modifications

  • Weight management. Maintaining a healthy weight reduces stress on weight-bearing joints, particularly the knees and hips.
  • Healthy diet. A balanced diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory foods can help manage symptoms.


  • Pain relievers. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen, can help manage pain.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ibuprofen and naproxen reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Topical analgesics. Creams and gels applied to the skin over the affected joint can provide relief.
  • Corticosteroid injections. Injections into the joint can reduce inflammation and pain for several weeks or months.
  • Hyaluronic acid injections. These can lubricate the joint and improve movement.

Physical Therapy

  • Exercise. Specific exercises can strengthen the muscles around the joint, improve flexibility, and reduce pain.
  • Manual therapy. Hands-on techniques to improve joint movement and function.

Assistive Devices

  • Braces and shoe inserts. These can help support the joint and reduce pain during activities. Orthopedic shoes may also be an option.
  • Canes or walkers. These devices can improve mobility and stability.

Surgical Options

  • Arthroscopy. Minimally invasive surgery to remove damaged cartilage or bone spurs.
  • Osteotomy. Surgery to realign bones to reduce stress on the joint.
  • Joint replacement. In severe cases, the damaged joint can be replaced with an artificial one, such as a knee or hip replacement.

Advanced Therapies

  • Stem cell therapy. This innovative treatment involves injecting stem cells into the affected joint to promote the repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage. Early studies show promise, but more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness.
  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy. PRP therapy involves injecting a concentration of a patient's own platelets into the affected joint. The growth factors in the platelets can potentially reduce inflammation and promote healing. This treatment is still being researched, but it has shown positive results in some patients.
  • Joint realignment. Also known as osteotomy, this surgical procedure involves cutting and realigning the bones to shift weight away from the damaged part of the joint. This can help relieve pain and improve function, especially in younger patients or those with limited areas of joint damage.

Exercises for Osteoarthritis

Regular exercise is crucial for managing osteoarthritis. It helps maintain joint function, reduces stiffness, and improves overall health. Here are some recommended exercises for OA patients:

Range-of-Motion Exercises

These exercises improve flexibility and reduce stiffness.

  • Gentle stretching. Stretching all major muscle groups, particularly those around the affected joints.
  • Yoga and tai chi. These practices enhance flexibility, balance, and strength.

Strengthening Exercises

Building muscle around the joints provides better support and reduces pain.

  • Leg raises. Lying on your back, lift one leg at a time while keeping the other leg bent.
  • Wall squats. Stand with your back against a wall, slowly bend your knees, and slide down as if sitting in a chair, then return to the standing position.

Aerobic Exercises

Low-impact activities help improve cardiovascular health without putting too much stress on the joints.

  • Walking. A daily walking routine can enhance joint health and overall fitness.
  • Cycling. Using a stationary bike provides a good cardiovascular workout with minimal joint strain.
  • Swimming. Water exercises are excellent because the buoyancy reduces stress on the joints while providing resistance to build strength.

Balance and Coordination Exercises

These exercises reduce the risk of falls and improve overall stability.

  • Standing on one leg.¬†Hold onto a chair for support and lift one leg, balancing on the other leg for as long as possible.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary in severity and may develop gradually. Key signs and symptoms include:

  • Pain. Affected joints may hurt during or after movement. Pain often worsens with activity and improves with rest.
  • Stiffness. Joint stiffness is most noticeable upon waking up in the morning or after periods of inactivity.
  • Tenderness. Joints may feel tender when applying light pressure.
  • Loss of flexibility. Range of motion in the affected joints can be reduced.
  • Grating sensation. A grating or cracking sensation may occur when moving the joint.
  • Swelling. Inflammation around the joint can cause swelling.
  • Bone spurs. Extra bits of bone, called osteophytes, may form around the affected joint.

Final Notes

Osteoarthritis is a common and often debilitating condition, but with proper management, individuals can lead active and fulfilling lives. Recognizing the signs and symptoms early, seeking appropriate treatment, and engaging in regular exercise are key strategies for managing OA.

By working with healthcare professionals and adopting a comprehensive approach to treatment, patients can effectively control their symptoms and maintain joint health.

Article Resources